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Discovery Timeline

(D) Independent Discoveries
(O) Observations
(V) Verification
from 1954 to 1997.
(B) Believed to be true

1954
(D) Verified the speed of light using television transmission. I measured one wavelength and multiplied it by the frequency.

(V) Verified the speed of electrical current in television lead line at 66% to 95% the speed of light, 66% for coaxial cable, 75% for ribbon lead and 90% for ladder lead line.

(V) The expanding magnetic field around an electric current carrying conductor at 186,000 miles per second from the conductor outward is the most rapid expansion or explosion. Atomic fission, expelling a proton or electron from a nucleus at 20 thousand miles per second, could be the next.

1985
(V) Verification of Lenz's Law. (Basis for new understanding of friction)

(V) Verification of the Quantum theory (Energy is neither wave nor particle. Energy is a quantity that employs particles which when in motion cause waves. Moving energy is a field of influence)

(O) Energy is mass less and therefore weightless (It is not affected by gravity, nor does it accelerate).

(D) Discovery of spherical shape of a quantum, now called a magnesphere.

(D) No electrical field traveling with the magnesphere
Size of a magnesphere of 1/2 wavelength in diameter.

(D) Magnetic structure of a magnesphere.

(D) Transparency through openings in wire netting is proportional to the opening diameter relative to the diameter of the magnesphere.

(D) Transparency around electrically disconnected surface& is proportional to the size of the surface relative to the size of the magnesphere.

(D) Alternating polarity magnespheres produced by alternating current.

(D) Magnesphere compresses while passing through a denser medium, which gives the appearance of traveling slower.

(D) Magnesphere regains speed by expansion when departing the denser medium. Compression and expansion give rise to total internal reflect.

(D) Electrically connected surface as large as the impinging magnesphere is necessary for efficient reflection.

(D) Radiation of magnesphere by opposing magnetic field.

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1986
(V) An electrical current produces a circular magnetic field around a wire. This is Hans Christian Oersted's right hand rule. 1820.

1987
(D) Heat is electron activity, not molecular motion.

(D) Electrons do not spin for energy. They are driven back and forth by passing magnetic fields.

(B) Rain drops are formed in the atmosphere by Gravity, which is the attraction of water molecules to a denser particle.

(B) The largest rain drop close at hand is Earth itself.

(D) Light bends around the sun by refraction, not gravitational attraction. Light is weightless. A laser beam is bent through a gas flame.

(D) Light can't reflect from a neutron star in a Black Hole. No electrical current can be produced, therefore no repulsion magnetic field.

1989
(D) Spring Atom, non orbiting, the neutron being an electron and proton pair.

(D) Atom expands with added electron back and forth activity driven by heat. Heat is radiated magnetic energy. White light is white hot.

(D) The atom model with electrons orbiting the nucleus must be replaced. There is no force available to sustain orbiting electrons.

(D) Alternating electrical current in a coil makes an alternating electromagnet.

(D) Interior of an atom can be arranged by electrical current giving rise to MAGNETISM.

(B) Four protons and four electrons (two pairs are locked together as neutrons) make the helium atom.

(D) In the Larry Spring model of the atom, electrons are driven back and forth by passing magnetic fields like electrons in an antenna.

(D) There is no limit to expansion of the SPRING ATOM.

(B) Nucleus of expanded SPRING ATOM looses some control of electrons in the Ionosphere causing Ions.

(O) Heavy nucleus attraction toward Earth by gravity tells plants which way is up.

(D) A neutron is the most basic element. It is a neutral particle composed of one proton and one attached electron.

(D) The very light electron part of the neutron in the nucleus sticks outward repelling the rest of the electrons. The very heavy positively charged protons in the nucleus want to fly apart, but are held together by Gravity, and their positive charge is neutralized by an equal number of negative electrons. The atom is neutral.

(B) The atom retains its nearly empty size by electron repulsion to electron inside the atom.

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1990
(B) Plants arrange molecules by electrical current. Leaves are solar cells and evaporators/concentrators.

(D) Random magnetism can not be detected with a compass.

(B) Every element will retain permanent magnetism below the Curie temperature (from Encyclopedia Britannica.)

1992
(D) I determined retardation of current in TV lead was due to insulation around the lead wire.

1994
(D) An internal reflecting laser beam in water can be pulled out where it touches the surface by using a glass prism.

1995
(D) Reflection from opposing magnetic field produced on surface by induced electrical current.

(D) Interior line up of nucleus and electrons inside the atom determines north pole and south pole.

(D) EVERY ATOM is a MAGNET normally in random orientation.

(D) Every atom being a magnet, at the atomic level every atom displays friction by resisting even the tiniest movement of one surface press tightly against another.

(O) Random magnetic orientation in surface atoms gives normal friction.

(O) Attraction mode magnets give maximum friction.

(O) Repulsion mode magnets give minimum friction.

(D) Light can‚t reflect from a neutron star in a black hole. No electrical current can be produced, therefore no repulsion magnetic field.

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